Bedford has a fast and efficient public transport system. The bus service is affordable, comprehensive and reliable, and the bus station is due for major redevelopment soon as part of a scheme to upgrade the town centre.

Bedford has a Park & Ride operation to the south of the town near Elstow, with plans to develop more sites around the town.

Bedford lies on the A6 road and the A1 and M1 motorway pass a few miles to the east and west respectively, linked via dual carriageway.

The town has two railway stations, of which the larger, Bedford (Midland) is located on the Midland Main Line and is the northernmost stop on the Thameslink rail service to Brighton. East Midlands Trains also serve the station, providing trains to London St. Pancras, Leicester, Nottingham, Sheffield and Leeds.  It is also the terminus of the Marston Vale Line from Bletchley. Bedford St Johns is the penultimate stop on the Marston Vale line.

Bedford is part of National Cycle Route 51. The Bedford Green Wheel gives cyclists access to a network of cycle routes around and in Bedford.